Vehicle Propulsion System


* Internal Combustion Engines (Conventional Vehicles)


- Gasoline- Crude Oil


- Diesel- Crude Oil


* Internal Combustion Engines (Alternative propulsion)


- Natural gas- Underground reserves

                (Compressed Natural Gas- CNG)

                (Liquefied Natural Gas-LNG)


- Propane (Liquefied Petroleum Gas-LPG)- A by-product of petroleum refining or natural gas processing


- Ethanol (E85)- Corn, Grains, or agricultural waste (85% Ethanol + 15% gasoline)


- Methanol (M85)- Natural gas, coal, or, woody biomass (85% Methanol + 15% gasoline)


- Hydrogen- Natural Gas, Methanol, and other energy sources. (


- Biodiesel (blend B 20, pure biodiesel B100)- Soy bean oil, waste cooking oil, animal fats, and rapeseed oil. (


* Alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs):

Alternative fuel vehicles include any dedicated, flexible-fuel, or dual-fuel vehicle designed to operate on at least one alternative fuel. Alternative fuel vehicles come in a variety of vehicle models such as sedans, pickup trucks, sport utility vehicles, vans, shuttle buses, medium-duty vehicles (such as delivery trucks), heavy-duty buses, and heavy-duty trucks.

A dual-fuel system, maintains two paths for fuel injection. Two types of fuel are stored in the car, but only one id delivered to the engine at any given time. For example, a hybrid car might make use of both natural and regular gasoline. Either a manual switch or some type of automatic sensor will tell the fuel injection system which fuel should be used.

A bi-fuel system, (Fuel Blends) on the other hand, makes use of two fuels simultaneously. The most common form of this is an E85 compatible vehicle. A mixture of fuels, made up of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, is stored in a single tank. When fuel is injected into the engine, both the ethanol and gasoline arrive. They are mixed at a ratio that makes for optimal performance and efficiency.
Blending amounts of alternative fuel with conventional fuel is an important option for reducing petroleum. Examples of low-level fuel blends include:
- E10 (10% ethanol/90% gasoline)
- B5 (5% biodiesel/95% diesel)
- B2 (2% biodiesel/98% diesel)
Blinds can also consist of two types of alternative fuels, such as:
- HCNG, hydrogen and compressed natural gas which can be combination of (20% hydrogen/80%CNG)
Example of high-level fuel blends include:
- B20 (20% biodiesel/80%diesel)
- E85 (85% ethanol/25% gasoline)

Flexible-Fuel  or Flex-Fuel Vehicles (FFVs), are design to run on gasoline or a blend of up to 85% ethanol (E85). The vehicle is an alternative fuel vehicle with an internal combustion engine designed to run on more than one fuel, usually gasoline blended with either ethanol or methanol fuel, and both fuels are stored in the same common tank. Modern flex-fuel engines are capable of burning any proportion of the resulting blend in the combustion chamber as fuel injection and spark timing are adjusted automatically according to the actual blend detected by a fuel composition sensor.

Bi-fuel vehicles or otherwise known as dual fuel are vehicles with multifuel engines capable of running on two fuels. On internal combustion engines one fuel is gasoline or diesel, and the other is an alternate fuel such as natural gas (CNG), LPG, or hydrogen. The two fuels are stored in separate tanks and the engine runs on one fuel at a time in some cases, in others both fuels are used in unison. Bi-fuel vehicles have the capability to switch back and forth from gasoline or diesel to the other fuel, manually or automatically.


* Alternative propulsion


- Electricity (battery operated- plug in) (


- Hybrid (IC engine + electric motor), (IC engine + hydraulic system)


- Fuel cell


- Compressed Air (




* Custom Alternative Fuels Comparison Chart