Springs- النوابض
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Springs- النوابض


Springs are elastic members that exert forces, or torques, and absorb energy, which is usually stored and later released. The force produced by a spring can be compressive or tensile and linear or radial.

Springs are usually, but not necessarily, made of metal. Plastics can be used when loads are light. Modern structural composites are being introduced for some applications requiring minimum spring mass. Blocks of rubber often constitute springs, as in bumpers and in vibration isolation mountings of various machines such as electric motors and internal combustion engines. Pneumatic springs of various types take advantage of the elastic compressibility of gases, as compressed air in automotive "air shocks" and as hermetic ally sealed high-pressure nitrogen gas in the hydro-pneumatic sus­pensions of French Citroen automobiles. For applications requiring compact springs providing very large forces with small deflections, hydraulic springs have proved effective. These work on the basis of the slight compressibility of liquids, as indicated by their bulk modulus of elasticity. Product cost can sometimes be reduced by designing the required elasticity into other parts, rather than making those parts rigid and adding a separate spring.

Springs can be classified by the direction and nature of the force exerted when they are deflected. Several types of spring are listed in Table 1 according to the nature of force or torque exerted. The principal characteristics of various classes of springs are summarized in Table 2.

Table 1 Classification of springs according to the nature of force or torque exerted


Type of spring


Helical compression   springs
Belleville springs
Flat springs, e.g. cantilever or leaf springs


Helical extension   springs
Flat springs, e.g. cantilever of leaf springs
Drawbar springs
Constant force springs


Garter springs
Elastomeric bands
Spring clamps


Torsion springs
Power springs


Table 2 Principle characteristics of a variety of types of spring

Type of spring

Principle   characteristics

Helical compression   springs

These are usually   made from round wire wrapped into a straight cylindrical form with a constant   pitch between adjacent coils

Helical extension   springs

These are usually   made from round wire wrapped into a straight cylindrical form but with the   coils closely spaced in the no -load condition. As an axial load is applied   the spring will extend but resisting the motion

Drawbar springs

A helical spring is   incorporate into an assembly with two loops of wire. As a load is applied the   spring is compressed in the assembly resisting the motion

Torsion springs

These exert a torque   as the spring id deflected by rotation about their axis. A common example of   the application of a torsion spring is the clothes peg

Leaf springs

Leaf springs are   made from flat strips of material and loaded as cantilever beams. They can   produce a tensile or compressive force depending on the mode of loading   applied

Belleville springs

These comprise   shallow conical discs with a central hole

Garter spring

These consist of   coiled wire formed into a continuous ring so that they can exert radial   inward force when stretched

Volute springs

These consist of a   spiral wound strip, that functions in compression. They are subject to   significant friction and hysteresis

Compression Spring

Extension Spring

Torsion Spring

Types and configurations and spring action:


Helical Compression

Round and Rectangular Wire

Helical Compression

Push   - wide load and deflection range - constant rate.

Push - wide load and deflection range.

Conical springs can be made with minimum   solid height and with constant or increasing rate.

Barrel, hourglass, and variable pitch   springs used to minimize resonant surging and vibration.

Spring Washer

Column 1:


Column 2:


spring washerspring washer

1)   Push - high loads, low deflections - choice of rates (constant, increasing or   decreasing)

2) Push - Light Loads, low deflection-uses   limited radial space.

3) Push - Higher deflections than   bellevilles.

4) Push - for axial loading of bearings.

5) Push - uesd to absorb axial end play.



Push   - may have inherently high friction damping.




1) Cantilever, Retangular Section

2) Cantilever, Trapezoidal Section

3) Simple Beam

1cantilever section beam
2trapezoid beam
3simple beam

Push   or pull - wide range of loads, low dflection range.



Helical Torsion

Round or Rectangular Wire

Helical Torsion

Twist   - constant rate.




1) Hairspring

2) Brush

1Hairspring Spiral
2brush sprial


Twist or Push



Constant Force Spring Motor

Level Torque

Constant Force Spring Motor

Twist   - exerts close-to-constant torque over many turns.



Helical Extension

Helical Extension

Pull   - wide load and deflection range - constant rate.





Pull   - extension to a solid stop.



Constant Force

Constant Force

Pull   - very long deflection at constant load or low rate.



Retaining Rings

Round or Rectangular Wire

Reatining Rings

Pull   or push - to resist axial loads.



Garter Springs

1) Extension

2) Compression

1Garter Springs
2Garter Springs

1)   Pull with radial pressure.

2) Push with radial pressure.

 Types of car suspension springs

Spring design
Spring design involves the relationship between force, torque, deflection, and stress. Springs have many uses in connection with machine design, such as to cushion impact and shock loading, to store energy, to maintain contact between machine members, for force measuring devices, to control vibration, and other related functions.

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